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  • اضطراب الأكل القهري
    نظرة عامة يعد اضطراب الأكل القهري اضطرابًا خطيرًا مرتبطًا بتناول الطعام، يستهلك فيه المصاب كمياتٍ كبيرة من الطعام بشكل غير معتاد ويشعر بعدم القدرة على التوقف عن الأكل. يفرط كل شخص تقريبًا في تناول الطعام أحيانًا، كأن يتناول وجبةً ثانية أو ثالثة من طعام المناسبات الخاصة. ولكن بالنسبة إلى بعض(...)
  • اضطراب الأكل المتعلق بالنوم
    نظرة عامة ينطوي اضطراب الأكل المرتبط بالنوم على نوبات متكررة من فقدان السيطرة على سلوكيات تناول الطعام والشراب عندما يكون الشخص في حالة النوم. فقد يكون غير مدرك جزئيًّا أو كليًّا لسلوكياته في أثناء تحضير الطعام وتناوله، مع تذكر قدر قليل مما قام به في الصباح أو عدم تذكر أي شيء منه على(...)
  • اضطراب الاكتناز
    نظرة عامةتتمثل السمة الرئيسية لاضطراب الاكتناز في مواجهة المرء لصعوبة غير منطقية مستمرة في التخلص من المقتنيات أو التخلي عنها — بغض النظر عن قيمتها الفعلية. وتكون هذه الصعوبة طويلة الأمد، وليست مجرد شيءٍ يتعلق بظروف تحدث مرةً واحدة (مثل صعوبة في التخلص من أحد الملكيات الشخصية التي ورثها(...)
  • اضطراب السلوك
    نظرة عامةتظهر السمة الأساسية لاضطراب السلوك من خلال نمط متكرر ومستمر من السلوكيات التي يقوم بها الطفل أو المراهق والتي تُنتهَك فيها الحقوق الأساسية للآخرين أو الأعراف أو القواعد المجتمعية المناسبة للعمر. وتندرج هذه السلوكيات ضمن أربع مجموعات أساسية وهي: سلوك عدواني يتسبَّب في إيذاء الآخرين(...)
  • اضطراب الشخصية الاعتمادية
    نظرة عامةيتسم اضطراب الشخصية الاعتمادية (DPD) بحاجة المرء إلى تلقي الرعاية والاهتمام من الآخرين واستمرار هذه الحاجة لفترة طويلة، لا سيَّما من قِبل الأفراد الذين يرونهم الأهم بالنسبة إليهم. ويصف بعض الناس الأشخاص الذين يعانون من هذا الاضطراب بأنهم "غير مستقلين"؛ لأنهم يواجهون مشكلةً في(...)
  • اضطراب الشخصية الهستيرية
    نظرة عامةيتسم اضطراب الشخصية الهستيرية (HPD) بنمط طويل الأمد من سلوك جذب الانتباه والعاطفية المفرطة. تكون لدى الشخص المصاب باضطراب الشخصية الهستيرية الرغبة في أن يكون مركز الاهتمام في أي مجموعة من الأشخاص، ويشعر بعدم الراحة عندما لا يكون كذلك. وعلى الرغم من أنهم غالبًا ما يتسمون بالحيوية(...)
  • اضطراب القلق الاجتماعي (الرهاب الاجتماعي)
    نظرة عامة من الطبيعي أن يشعر الإنسان بالانفعال في بعض المواقف الاجتماعية. فعلى سبيل المثال، يمكن أن يؤدي الذهاب إلى موعد غرامي أو تقديم عرض تقديمي إلى الشعور بالتوتر والقلق والانفعال. ولكن في اضطراب القلق الاجتماعي، والمعروف أيضًا بالرهاب الاجتماعي، تؤدي التفاعلات اليومية إلى القلق البالغ(...)
  • اضطراب الكرب التالي للرضح (PTSD)
    نظرة عامة اضطراب الكرب التالي للرضح (PTSD) هو حالة متعلقة بالصحة العقلية يستثيرها حدث مخيف — قد يحدث للمرء أو قد يشهده. وقد تتضمن الأعراض استرجاع الأحداث، والكوابيس والقلق الشديد، بالإضافة للأفكار التي لا يمكن السيطرة عليها بخصوص الحدث. أغلب من يمرون بأحداث مؤبمة قد يصابون بصعوبة مؤقتة في(...)
  • اضطراب الوسواس القهري (OCD)
    نظرة عامة يتميز اضطراب الوسواس القهري (OCD) بنمط من الأفكار والمخاوف غير المعقولة (الهواجس) التي تدفع المرء إلى القيام بسلوكيات متكررة (قهرية). تتداخل هذه الهواجس والسلوكيات القهرية مع الأنشطة اليومية وتسبب الإزعاج الشديد. يمكن للمرء محاولة تجاهل هواجسه الخاصة أو إيقافها، ولكن هذا يزيد فقط(...)
  • اضطراب تشوه الجسم
    نظرة عامة اضطراب تشوه الجسم هو اضطراب عقلي يعجز فيه المرء عن التوقف عن التفكير في واحد أو أكثر من العلل أو العيوب المتصوَّرة في مظهره؛ ويكون عيبا بسيطا أو غير ملحوظ بالنسبة إلى الآخرين. ومع ذلك، فقد يشعر المرء بالخجل والقلق حتى أنه ربما يتجنب العديد من المواقف الاجتماعية. عندما يُصاب المرء(...)
  • اضطراب ثنائي القطب
    نظرة عامة الاضطراب ثنائي القطب، المعروف سابقًا باسم الاكتئاب الهوسي، عبارة عن حالة صحية عقلية تتسبب في تقلبات مزاجية مفرطة تتضمن حالات مزاجية مرتفعة (الهوس أو الهوس الخفيف) وحالات مزاجية منخفضة (الاكتئاب). عندما يُصاب المرء بالاكتئاب، ربما يشعر بالحزن أو اليأس وفقدان الاهتمام أو فقدان(...)
  • اضطرابات النوم
    نظرة عامة اضطرابات النوم هي التغيرات التي تطرأ على الطريقة التي تنام بها. قد تؤثر اضطرابات النوم على صحتك بوجه عام، وعلى سلامتك ونمط حياتك. ومن الممكن أن يؤدي حرمانك من النوم إلى تأثر قدرتك على القيادة بأمان، ويزيد من احتمالات تعرضك لمشكلات صحية أخرى.تتضمن بعض أعراض اضطرابات النوم(...)
  • اضطرابات انشقاقية
    نظرة عامة تُعد الاضطرابات الانشقاقية اضطرابات عقلية تتضمن الإصابة بالانفصال وفقدان التواصل بين الأفكار والذكريات والأحوال المحيطة والأفعال والهوية. يهرب المصابون بالاضطرابات الانشقاقية من الواقع بطرق لاإرادية وغير صحية وتسبب المشكلات التي تعوق أداء الوظائف في الحياة اليومية. وتحدث الاضطرابات(...)
  • الاضطراب الانفجاري المتقطع
    نظرة عامة تتمثل السمة الأساسية للاضطراب الانفجاري المتقطع في حدوث نوبات منفصلة يعجز خلالها المرء عن مقاومة الدوافع العدوانية التي تؤدي إلى اعتداءاتٍ خطيرة أو إتلاف الممتلكات (المعيار أ). وتفوق درجة العدوانية المُعبَّر عنها خلال النوبة أي استفزاز أو استثارة عوامل الضغط النفسية (المعيار(...)
  • الخرف
    نظرة عامة لا يعتبر الخرف مرضًا بعينه. بل إنه يصف مجموعةً من الأعراض المؤثرة بشدة في الذاكرة، والتفكير والقدرات الاجتماعية لدرجة تكفي لتعارضها مع الوظائف اليومية والتشويش عليها. على الرغم من أن الخرف عادةً ما يتضمن فقدان الذاكرة،فإن فقدان الذاكرة له أسباب مختلفة. لذا، لا يعني فقدان الذاكرة(...)
  • م
  • متلازمة تململ الساقين (RLS)
    نظرة عامةمتلازمة تململ الساقين هي اضطراب نوم عصبي يتسم بالرغبة في تحريك الساقين أو الذراعين، والتي عادة ما تقترن بأحاسيس عدم الارتياح، والتي توصف في المعتاد بالإحساس بدبيب أو زحف أو وخز أو لسع أو حكاك. تكون الأعراض أسوأ حين يكون المرء في حالة استرخاء، فتتحرك الساقان في محاولة لتسكين أحاسيس(...)
  • ه
  • هلع النوم
    نظرة عامةيُطلَق أيضًا على اضطراب هلع النوم الهلع الليلي. ويتسم هلع النوم بالأعراض التالية التي يبحث عنها المعالج عند إجراء تشخيص لهذه الحالة:نوبات متكررة من الاستيقاظ المفاجئ من النوم، والتي تحدث عادةً خلال الثلث الأول من فترة النوم الرئيسية وتبدأ بصرخة مخيفة. الخوف الشديد وعلامات(...)
  • هوس الحرائق
    نظرة عامةهوس الحرائق هو رغبة مهووسة أو دافع لا يقاوم لإشعال الحرائق في الأشياء. وفيما يلي أعراض هوس الحرائق:الإضرام المتعمد للحرائق في أكثر من مناسبة.التوتر أو الإثارة العاطفية قبل الفعل.الافتتان بالنيران والاستمتاع بها والفضول بشأنها أو الانجذاب لها ولسياقاتها الظرفية (المعدات(...)
  • هوس السرقة
    نظرة عامة هوس السرقة (كلبتومانيا) هو عجز متواتر عن مقاومة رغبات مُلِّحة في سرقة الأشياء التي عادةً ما لا يحتاج إليها السارق، وعادةً ما تكون ضئيلة القيمة. ويُعدّ هوس السرقة واحدًا من اضطرابات الصحة العقلية نادر الحدوث، ولكنه خطير، ويمكن أن يسبِّب للمرء ولأحبائه الكثيرَ من الألم العاطفي إذا لم(...)
  • هوس نتف الشعر
    نظرة عامةيتسم هوس نتف الشعر أساسًا بشد الشخص لشعره بشكل متكرر. وقد يحدث نتف الشعر من أي منطقة في الجسم — مثل فروة الرأس أو الجفون أو الحواجب. وتشمل المواضع الأقل شيوعًا لهوس نتف الشعر نتف شعر الوجه أو الذراعين أو الساقين أو الإبطين أو العانة. وقد تختلف أماكن نتف الشعر بمرور الوقت.تبلغ(...)
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  • Acute Stress Disorder
    OverviewAcute stress disorder is characterized by the development of severe anxiety, dissociation, and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor (e.g., witnessing a death or serious accident). As a response to the traumatic event, the(...)
  • Adjustment disorders
    Overview Adjustment disorders are stress-related conditions. You experience more stress than would normally be expected in response to a stressful or unexpected event, and the stress causes significant problems in your relationships, at work or at school. Work problems, going away to school,(...)
  • Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead to unstable relationships, poor work or school(...)
  • Agoraphobia
    Overview Agoraphobia (ag-uh-ruh-FOE-be-uh) is a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed. You fear an actual or anticipated situation, such as using public transportation, being(...)
  • Alcohol Use Disorder
    Overview Alcohol use disorder (which includes a level that's sometimes called alcoholism) is a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same(...)
  • Anorexia nervosa
    OverviewAnorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their weight and(...)
  • Antisocial personality disorder
    Overview Antisocial personality disorder, sometimes called sociopathy, is a mental condition in which a person consistently shows no regard for right and wrong and ignores the rights and feelings of others. People with antisocial personality disorder tend to antagonize, manipulate or treat(...)
  • Anxiety disorders
    Overview Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and(...)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children
    OverviewAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Children(...)
  • Autism
    OverviewAutism is a mental disorder that begins in childhood that is characterized by persistent impairments in being to engage in social communication and interaction with others. A person with autism often has restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities. The(...)
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
    OverviewPeople with avoidant personality disorder experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. These feelings of inadequacy lead the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of(...)
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  • Bereavement
    OverviewBereavement is a normal reaction to loss in human beings in virtually every culture across the world. There are no set rules for how long “normal” bereavement lasts, as each person and each loss is very different. Therefore, bereavement tends not to be diagnosed unless it has gone(...)
  • Binge-eating disorder
    Overview Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food and feel unable to stop eating. Almost everyone overeats on occasion, such as having seconds or thirds of a holiday meal. But for some people, excessive overeating that(...)
  • Bipolar disorder
    Overview Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most(...)
  • Body dysmorphic disorder
    Overview Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder in which you can't stop thinking about one or more perceived defects or flaws in your appearance — a flaw that, to others, is either minor or not observable. But you may feel so ashamed and anxious that you may avoid many social(...)
  • Borderline personality disorder
    Overview Borderline personality disorder is a mental health disorder that impacts the way you think and feel about yourself and others, causing problems functioning in everyday life. It includes a pattern of unstable intense relationships, distorted self-image, extreme emotions and(...)
  • Brief Psychotic Disorder
    OverviewBrief psychotic disorder — also known as brief reactive psychosis — is a mental disorder that is typically diagnosed in a person’s late 20s or early 30s. Brief reactive psychosis can be thought of as time-limited schizophrenia that is resolved within one month’s time.It is(...)
  • Bulimia Nervosa
    OverviewPeople with bulimia nervosa consume large amounts of food and then rid their bodies of the excess calories by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Some use a combination of all these forms of purging. Because many individuals with(...)
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  • Childhood schizophrenia
    Overview Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), behavior or emotions. It may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely(...)
  • Complicated grief
    Overview Losing a loved one is one of the most distressing and, unfortunately, common experiences people face. Most people experiencing normal grief and bereavement have a period of sorrow, numbness, and even guilt and anger. Gradually these feelings ease, and it's possible to accept loss and(...)
  • Compulsive gambling
    Overview Compulsive gambling, also called gambling disorder, is the uncontrollable urge to keep gambling despite the toll it takes on your life. Gambling means that you're willing to risk something you value in the hope of getting something of even greater value. Gambling can stimulate the(...)
  • Conduct Disorder
    OverviewThe essential feature of conduct disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior by a child or teenager in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors fall into four main groupings: aggressive conduct(...)
  • Conversion Disorder
    OverviewConversion disorder features one or more symptoms or deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggest a neurological or other general medical conditionPsychological factors are judged to be associated with the symptom or deficit because the initiation or(...)
  • Cyclothymic Disorder (Cyclothymia)
    OverviewCyclothymic disorder (also known as cyclothymia) is characterized by a person experiencing numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and periods with depressive symptoms. Neither periods of hypomania nor depression meet the criteria for a diagnosis of hypomania, bipolar II disorder,(...)
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  • Delirium
    OverviewDelirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. The start of delirium is usually rapid — within hours or a few days. Delirium can often be traced to one or more contributing factors, such as a severe(...)
  • Dementia
    Overview Dementia isn't a specific disease. Instead, dementia describes a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and social abilities severely enough to interfere with daily functioning. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. So memory loss(...)
  • Dependent Personality Disorder
    OverviewDependent personality disorder (DPD) is characterized by a long-standing need for the person to be taken care of by others in their life, especially specific people they’ve identified as being the most important to them. Some people characterize people with this disorder as seeming(...)
  • Depersonalization / Derealization Disorder Symptoms
    OverviewThe person has persistent or recurrent experiences (episodes) of feeling detached from one’s surroundings, mental processes, or body (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream, or as if one is looking at themselves as an outside observer).In the case of depersonalization, the(...)
  • Depression (major depressive disorder)
    OverviewDepression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble(...)
  • Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder
    OverviewThe primary defining feature of disinhibited social engagement disorder is a person’s pattern of behavior that involves culturally inappropriate, overly familiar behavior with relative strangers. This behavior violates the ordinary social customs and boundaries of the(...)
  • Disorder of Written Expression
    OverviewThe essential feature of disorder of written expression is writing skills (as measured by an individually-administered standardized test or functional assessment of writing skills) that fall substantially below those expected given the individual’s chronological age, measured(...)
  • Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
    OverviewThe defining characteristic of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children is a chronic, severe, and persistent irritability. This irritability is often displayed by the child as a temper tantrum, or temper outburst, that occur frequently (3 or more times per week).(...)
  • Dissociative Amnesia
    OverviewThe predominant disturbance of dissociative amnesia is one or more episodes of inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.The disturbance does not occur(...)
  • Dissociative Fugue
    OverviewDissociative fugue is one or more episodes of amnesia in which an individual cannot recall some or all of his or her past. Either the loss of one’s identity or the formation of a new identity may occur with sudden, unexpected, purposeful travel away from home.SymptomsThe(...)
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
    OverviewAlso Known as Multiple PersonalityDisorderDissociative identity disorder (DID) is a diagnosis characterized by having two or more distinct people, each with his or her own identity and personality, that alternately take control over a person. More commonly known by its older(...)
  • Drug Addiction (Substance Use Disorder)
    Overview Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person’s brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. When you’re(...)
  • Dyspareunia
    OverviewDyspareunia symptoms include recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse in either a male or a female.The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.The disturbance is not caused exclusively by pelvic pain or lack of(...)
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  • Encopresis
    OverviewThe essential feature of Encopresis is repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places (e.g., the child’s clothing or on the floor). Most often this is involuntary but occasionally it may be intentional.When the passage of feces is involuntary rather than intentional, it is(...)
  • Enuresis
    OverviewThe essential feature of enuresis is repeated voiding of urine during the day or at night into bed or clothes. Most often this is involuntary but occasionally may be intentional.SymptomsRepeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes (whether involuntary or intentional). The(...)
  • Expressive Language Disorder
    OverviewThe essential feature of expressive language disorder is an impairment in expressive language development in a child as determined by scores on standardized individually-administered tests which measure both nonverbal intellectual capacity and receptive language development. The(...)
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  • Generalized anxiety disorder
    Overview It's normal to feel anxious from time to time, especially if your life is stressful. However, excessive, ongoing anxiety and worry that are difficult to control and interfere with day-to-day activities may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder. It's possible to develop(...)
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  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
    OverviewHistrionic personality disorder (HPD) is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and they feel uncomfortable when they(...)
  • Hoarding Disorder
    OverviewThe main feature of hoarding disorder is a person’s irrational, persistent difficulty in discarding or parting with possessions — regardless of their actual value. This is a long-standing difficulty, not just something related to a one-time circumstance (such as having difficulty(...)
  • Hypersomnolence (Hypersomnia)
    OverviewHypersomnolence is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness or prolonged nighttime sleep. It has previously been referred to as “hypersomnia,” but this name does not capture both components of its definition.Rather than feeling tired due to lack of or(...)
  • Hypochondriasis
    OverviewHypochondriasis symptoms include a preoccupation with fears of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person’s misinterpretation of bodily symptoms.The preoccupation persists despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance.The belief in the(...)
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  • Insomnia
    Overview Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. You may still feel tired when you wake up. Insomnia can sap not only your energy level and mood but also your health,(...)
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
    OverviewThe essential feature of intermittent explosive disorder is the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property (Criterion A). The degree of aggressiveness expressed during an episode is(...)
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  • Kleptomania
    Overview Kleptomania (klep-toe-MAY-nee-uh) is the recurrent inability to resist urges to steal items that you generally don't really need and that usually have little value. Kleptomania is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can cause much emotional pain to you and your loved ones(...)
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  • Multiple personality disorder
    Overview Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause problems(...)
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  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    OverviewNarcissistic Personality Disorder SymptomsNarcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this(...)
  • Narcolepsy
    OverviewThe essential features of sleepiness in narcolepsy is irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep that occur almost daily (at least 3x per week) over at least 3 months. Narcolepsy generally produces cataplexy, which most commonly presents as brief episodes (seconds to minutes) of(...)
  • Nightmare Disorder
    OverviewA nightmare is a disturbing dream accompanied by negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear that awakens you. Nightmares are common in children, but can happen at any age, and occasional nightmares usually are nothing to worry about.Nightmares may begin in children between 3(...)
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  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    Overview Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. You may try to ignore or(...)
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    OverviewOppositional defiant disorder is a childhood disorder that is characterized by negative, defiant, disobedient, and often hostile behavior toward adults and authority figures primarily. In order to be diagnosed, the behaviors must occur for at least a period of 6(...)
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  • Paranoid Personality Disorder
    OverviewPeople with paranoid personality disorder are generally characterized by having a long-standing pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. A person with paranoid personality disorder will nearly always believe that other people’s motives are suspect or even(...)
  • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
    Overview Persistent depressive disorder, also called dysthymia (dis-THIE-me-uh), is a continuous long-term (chronic) form of depression. You may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and have low self-esteem and an overall feeling of inadequacy. These(...)
  • Postpartum Depression
    OverviewWhen a new baby is on the way or has just been born, most people expect moms to be happy and joyous. Yet for many women, childbirth brings on an unexpected mood — depression. We call such episodes of sadness “postpartum depression,” even though the depressive episode can also start(...)
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    OverviewPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental disorder that can occur when a person has directly experienced — or even just witnessed — an extremely traumatic, tragic, or terrifying event. People with PTSD usually have persistent frightening thoughts and memories(...)
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    OverviewThe defining characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the expression of mood lability, irritability, dysphoria, and anxiety symptoms that occur repeatedly during the premenstrual phase of the cycle and remit around the onset of menses or shortly(...)
  • Prescription Drug Use Disorder
    Overview Prescription drug abuse is the use of a prescribed drug in a way not intended by the prescribing doctor. Prescription drug abuse or nonprescription use includes everything from taking a friend's prescribed painkiller for your backache to snorting or injecting ground-up pills to get(...)
  • Pseudobulbar Affect
    OverviewPseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a condition characterized by seemingly inappropriate display of emotion (or affect) by a person without an accompanying reason for the emotion. For example, a person may begin crying or laughing for no apparent reason. The persona experiences a(...)
  • Psychotic Disorder: Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
    OverviewThe category of psychotic disorder: not otherwise specified includes psychotic symptomatology (i.e., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior) about which there is inadequate information to make a specific diagnosis or about which(...)
  • Pyromania
    OverviewPyromania is an obsessive desire or irrestistible impulse to set fire to things. The following are pyromania symptoms:Deliberate and purposeful fire setting on more than one occasion.Tension or affective arousal before the act.Fascination with, interest in, curiosity(...)
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  • Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Behavior Disorder
    OverviewRapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by repeatedly waking up after REM sleep, which may include vocalizations or complex motor behaviors. The “complex motor behaviors” are in reaction to events occurring in one’s dream state, and are often called “dream(...)
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder
    OverviewReactive attachment disorder can develop when a child fails to receive adequate comfort and nurturing from caregivers. It is grouped under “Trauma-and-Stressor-Related Disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. However, even in(...)
  • Reading Disorder
    OverviewThe essential feature of reading disorder is reading achievement (i.e., reading accuracy, speed, or comprehension as measured by individually-administered standardized tests) in a child that falls substantially below what is expected, given the individual’s chronological age,(...)
  • Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
    OverviewRestless legs syndrome is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by a desire to move the legs or arms, usually associated with uncomfortable sensations typically described as creeping, crawling, tingling, burning or itching. Symptoms are worse when the individual is at rest,(...)
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  • Schizoaffective disorder
    Overview Schizoaffective disorder is a mental disorder in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions, and mood disorder symptoms, such as depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some(...)
  • Schizoid personality disorder
    Overview Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression. If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or(...)
  • Schizophrenia
    Overview Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning, and can be disabling. People with(...)
  • Schizotypal personality disorder
    Overview People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric and usually have few, if any, close relationships. They generally don't understand how relationships form or the impact of their behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and(...)
  • Selective Mutism
    OverviewSelective mutism is a type of anxiety disorder whose main distinguishing characteristic is the persistent failure to speak in specific social situations (e.g., at school or with playmates) where speaking is expected, despite speaking in other situations.Selective mutism(...)
  • Self-injury/cutting
    Overview Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is a harmful way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger(...)
  • Separation anxiety disorder
    Overview Separation anxiety is a normal stage of development for infants and toddlers. Young children often experience a period of separation anxiety, but most children outgrow separation anxiety by about 3 years of age. In some children, separation anxiety is a sign of a more serious(...)
  • Sleep-related eating disorder
    Overview Sleep-related eating disorder involves frequent episodes of out-of-control eating and drinking behaviors while in a state of sleep. You may be partially or fully unaware of your behavior while preparing and eating food, with little or no memory of these actions the next(...)
  • Sleep Terror
    OverviewSleep terror disorder is also known as night terrors. Sleep terror is characterized by the following symptoms that a professional looks for when making a diagnosis for this condition:Recurrent episodes of abrupt awakening from sleep, usually occurring during the first third(...)
  • Sleepwalking & Sleep Terror
    OverviewNon rapid eye movement (REM) sleep arousal disorder describes episodes of incomplete awakening from sleep and can involve either sleepwalking or night terrors.Sleepwalking: rising from bed during sleep and walking about, usually occurring during the first third of the major(...)
  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
    Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, fear,(...)
  • Social (Pragmatic) Communication
    OverviewSocial (pragmatic) communication disorder is characterized by difficulty with the use of social language and communication skills (also called pragmatic communication by professionals). A child or teen with this disorder will have difficulty in following the ordinary social rules(...)
  • Stereotypic Movement Disorder
    OverviewStereotypic movement disorder symptoms include: repetitive, seemingly driven, and nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand shaking or waving, body rocking, head banging, mouthing of objects, self-biting, picking at skin or bodily orifices, hitting own body).The behavior(...)
  • Stuttering
    OverviewThe essential feature of stuttering is a disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual’s age. This disorder is most commonly diagnosed in childhood.At the onset of stuttering, the speaker may not be aware of the(...)
  • Suicide and suicidal thoughts
    Overview Suicide, taking your own life, is a tragic reaction to stressful life situations — and all the more tragic because suicide can be prevented. Whether you're considering suicide or know someone who feels suicidal, learn suicide warning signs and how to reach out for immediate help and(...)
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  • Tourette’s Disorder
    OverviewThe essential features of Tourette’s disorder are multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics, expressing themselves many times a day for at least 1 year. These may appear simultaneously or at different periods during the illness.The anatomical location, number, frequency,(...)
  • Transient Tic Disorder
    OverviewThe essential feature of transient tic disorder is the presence of single or multiple motor tics and/or vocal tics. The tics occur many times a day.A tic is a sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization. The vocal tics include various words(...)
  • Trichotillomania
    OverviewTrichotillomania is primarily characterized by the recurrent pulling out of one’s own hair. Hair pulling may occur from any region of the body — such as your scalp, eyelids or eyebrows. Less common areas where trichotillomania occurs includes pulling out facial hair, pulling out(...)